Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Basic units of language and speech

14 Февраля 2013, шпаргалка

Distinction between language and speech was first introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure. Language – is a system of units used in the process of speaking by all members of a community. Speech – is the process of using articulate (distinctly uttered) sounds to convey information. In the process of language we use many units to code the information we are going to convey, therefore any instance of speech is a particular realization of a language.
The basic units of language and speech are:

Begründung der Notwendigkeit der Preisniveaustabilität

20 Ноября 2011, реферат

Eine zentrale Aufgabe makroökonomischer Wirtschaftspolitik ist die Bekämpfung von Inflation. Damit ist die Stabilität des Preisniveaus gemeint. Aus dieser Formulierung geht hervor, dass hierbei nicht die Vermeidung des Anstiegs einzelner Güterpreise, sondern die Verhinderung von Preisniveausteigerungen auf breiter Front im Mittelpunkt stehet. Oft wird auch vom Ziel der Geldwertstabilität gesprochen oder auch von der Binnenwertstabilität (im Unterschied zur Außerwertstabilität, womit die Wechselkurse gemeint sind).


26 Июля 2011, реферат

Belarus is situated in the center of Europe. The territory of Belarus is 207,600 square kilometers, its population is less than 10 million people. Belarus borders on Russia, Poland, the Ukraine, Lithuania and Latvia.

Belarusian history of cinema

18 Ноября 2011, доклад

Film-making in Belarus started in 1924 when the State Administration on Matters of Cinematography and Photography (Belgoskino) was organized. In 1928 in Leningrad the "Soviet Belarus" studio of picture films was founded, since 1939 it worked in Minsk, since 1946 under the name of "Belarusfilm".

Belly landing

25 Февраля 2013, доклад

Malév Flight 262 was a flight from Budapest Ferihegy International Airport to Thessaloniki International Airport. On 4 July 2000, a Tupolev Tu-154used on this flight performed a gear-up touchdown during the landing at Thessaloniki, skidded on the runway, but was able to take off and land normally after a go-around. No injuries were reported.

Benjamin Disraeli

19 Декабря 2011, биография

Benjamin was the second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli and Maria Basevi
He changed the spelling in the 1820s by dropping the apostrophe
Before he entered parliament, Disraeli was involved with several women, most notably Henrietta, Lady Sykes


13 Сентября 2013, реферат

1. Scan the passage below and identify its subject.
In attempting to explain why double entry bookkeeping developed in fourteenth century Italy instead of ancient Greece or Rome, accounting scholar A.C. Littleton describes seven "key ingredients" which led to its creation:
Private property, Capital, Commerce, Credit, Writing, Money, Arithmetic
Many of these factors did exist in ancient times, but until the middle ages they were not found together in a form and strength necessary to push man to the innovation of double entry.

Books in my life

16 Сентября 2012, реферат

My family is not very big, just a typical family: Dad, Mom, me, my brother and sister and our cat. My Mummy is forty-one, she is a teacher of Spanish at the University. She is a born teacher. She has teaching abilities. My Dad is forty-two, he is a professional painter, he works for a design company. My parents both like their work very much.


25 Декабря 2010, доклад

Borrowing – 1) (process) resorting to the word-stock of other languages for words to express new concepts, to further differentiate the existing concepts and to name new objects, etc.; 2) (result) a loan word, borrowed word – a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language. The following types of borrowings can be distinguished:

Bridges over the River Thames in London

21 Декабря 2010, доклад

Twenty-four bridges span the Thames in London, from Kew Bridge to Tower Bridge. Some our railway bridges and there is a footbridge, howeer most are road bridges. The oldest is London Bridge, which was originally made from wood. In 1209 it was replaced by a stone bridge with shops and houses along its sides. This was followed by a granite bridge in 1831, and the present concrete bridge in 1973.

Britain or Great Britain

29 Ноября 2011, реферат

The official name of the country, we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands, lying just off the mainland of northwestern Europe.

British Cuisine

14 Марта 2011, реферат

British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable. Other meals, such as fish and chips, which were once urban street food eaten from newspaper with salt and malt vinegar, and pies and sausages with mashed potatoes, onions, and gravy.

British families

08 Апреля 2013, сочинение

In comparison with most other places in the world, family identity is rather weak in Britain, especially in England. Of course, most people still live in families. But in Britain, this definitely means the nuclear family (нуклеарная семья, состоящая из родителей и их детей). There is little sense of extended family identity (расширенная семья) except among racial minorities (расовые меньшинства). This is reflected in the size and composition of households. It is unusual for adults of different generations within the family to live together.

British Traditions and Customs

28 Октября 2012, доклад

British nation is considered to be the most conservative in Europe. It is not a secret that every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Great Britain people attach greater importance to traditions and customs than in other European countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. The best examples are their queen, money system, their weights and measures.

Business plan

24 Марта 2012, лекция

Two businesswomen want to set up a mini confectionery shop. We’ll produce and sell products.
Shop’s name is “21 century”. It will be a partnership company.

Business plan "SPORT BAR"

17 Февраля 2013, доклад

“Arsenal” Sport Bar has established a successful presence in the food and beverage service industry. The location in Bostandyk region will attract majority of people that are aged 18 and more, also having bookmakers and bits within the bar we will attract their players. In period of World Cup, UEFA Champions League and other world league the sport bar will gather more profit. First year operations the sport bar will produce a net profit of $16 254. This will be generated from an investment of $46 122 in initial capital.

Business values of Management Systems

05 Марта 2013, реферат

This paperwork will describe all the facts about MIS. MIS is one of the most useful tools in management of the company. More and more managers use it in order to develop the answers on the questions they need. It has more values and different types of advantages for the company and the business in general.
Today when people have no time to waste and there is a huge amount of data due to access to the Internet and the previous history and data which was taken before they need a fast solution to organize data. They need some programs to help them store information, package it and show it at the right moment when you have a dilemma or a difficulty what to do. MIS soft wares are excellent help in that.


08 Ноября 2011, доклад

California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by land area (after Alaska and Texas). The capital city is Sacramento.
First European settlements in California were Spanish, and in 1821, when Mexico became independent, it became its part. In 1848 the United States took control over this state. And on September 9, 1850, it became the 31 state of the USA.

Care of elder peolpe

16 Марта 2011, реферат

It is generally accepted that elderly people fare best when care is provided in their own homes. However, some conditions require more intensive management than can be provided in the community. The admission of elderly patients to hospital, their treatment and subsequent discharge can prove challenging.

Cars and the equipment for crushing of stone materials

16 Октября 2011, реферат

Crushing is process of consecutive reduction of the sizes of pieces of a firm material from initial the fineness of to demanded. By manufacture of rubble as a result of crushing the ready product turns out. In other cases this process is preparatory for the further processing, for example, by cement manufacture.

Central Asia is Kazakhstan

05 Марта 2013, реферат

One of the countries with the most developed economy in Central Asia is Kazakhstan. The republic of Kazakhstan is known as the ninth largest country in the world. Kazakhstan is rich in minerals and fossil fuel resources. It has got great productive potential and history, culture.
The history of Kazakhstan is a meaty and significant with lots of historical events. It starts from XV century. It took many centuries our ancestors to inhabit, to learn, to protect it from enemies and pass the legacy to us, the living. How much labor and sweat and blood, joy and suffering befell past generations. Poetic heritage of our nation contains many fascinating pictures beauty of his native land, its infinite expanses, white communities of the mountains, azure surface of the lake ...

Chain Structure and Configuration

06 Мая 2012, творческая работа

Many polymers in the solid (bulk) state undergo strain, either during processing such as extrusion, molding, and spinning or when in service and under load. Studies using solid-state NMR and FTIR showing how polymers respond to strain have contributed greatly to improving their mechanical behavior.

Charity in America

28 Апреля 2012, реферат

Charity in America is very developed. As show researches, the majority of Americans 2-5 percent of the incomes endow to non-profit organizations on the average and devote some hours per week on the voluntary help of the organization! And business in a side is not necessary. As to non-profit organizations they at regular intervals report to the others where are spent money. At them even annual ceremony where choose the best leaders of charitable organizations Jefferson Award is spent.

Charles Lamb

19 Февраля 2013, лекция

Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 – 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the children's book Tales from Shakespeare, which he produced with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847). Lamb has been referred to by E.V. Lucas, his principal biographer, as "the most lovable figure in English literature".

Christmas in Great Britain and Russia

14 Мая 2012, курсовая работа

Every nation and every country has its own traditions and customs. Traditions make a nation special. Some of them are old-fashioned and many people remember them, others are part of people's life. Some British and Russian customs and traditions are known all over the world.
National holidays play a big role in Russian and Brittan culture, ever since ancient times.

Classical School of Management

06 Февраля 2011, сочинение

The oldest and perhaps most widely accepted school among practitioners has been called the classical school of management thought. This is the approach to management thought that arose mainly from efforts between 1900 and 1940 to provide a rational and scientific basis for the management of organisations. This is sometimes referred to as the traditional school of management.

Classification of Phraseological Units

15 Марта 2012, курсовая работа

Nowadays English is the chief language of international business and academic conferences, the leading language of international tourism. English is the main language of popular music, advertising, home computers and video games. Most of the scientific, technological and academic information in the world is expressed in English

Comparative analysis of itony in english and russian

22 Ноября 2011, реферат

Irony is an instinctively recognized Stylistic Device (SD), the nature of which is not fully studied. This device is also based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings – dictionary and contextual ones, but the two meaning stand in opposition to each other. That is, a word with a positive meaning is used to denote something negative and vice versa.

For example: must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket.
According to Efimov’s book from stylistic irony is classified as lexico-semantic Stylistic Devices and is the figure of substitution and in additional the figures of quality as a kind of figure of substitution.

Composition of the government

14 Апреля 2012, реферат

Her Majesty's Government is the body of ministers responsible for the conduct of national affairs. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Queen, and all other ministers are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Most ministers are members of the Commons, although the Government is also fully represented by ministers in the Lords. The Lord Chancellor is always a member of the House of Lords.

Compound words

02 Мая 2013, курсовая работа

Compound words are words consisting of at least two stems which occur in the language as free forms. In a compound word the immediate constituents obtain integrity and structural cohesion that make them function in a sentence as a separate lexical unit.
Compound words may be described from different points of view and consequently may be classified according to different principles. They may be viewed from the point of view: 1) of general relationship and degree of semantic independence of components; 2) of the parts of speech compound words represent; 3) of the means of composition used to link the two ICs together; 4) of the type of ICs that are brought together to form a compound; 5) of the correlative relations with the system of free word-groups.