Рефераты по иностранным языкам

Phraseological units in English

31 Января 2013, курсовая работа

The term ‘phraseology’ originated in Russian studies which developed from the late 1940’s to the 1960’s . In linguistics, the term ‘phraseology’ describes the context in which a word is used. This often includes idioms, phrasal verbs, and proverbs. “Phraseology is a fuzzy part of language. Although most of us would agree that it embraces the conventional rather than the productive or rule-governed side of language, involving various kinds of composite units and ‘pre-patterned’ expression such as idioms, fixed phrases, and collocations,we find it difficult to delimit the area and classify the different types involved”.

Phraseology. Principals of classification of phraseological units

10 Декабря 2011, лекция

Lexicology – is that branch of linguistics which is concerned with the study of words. Lexicology studies meaning and making words, their ways and manners, where they come from, their appearance in the language. As a branch of linguistics, lexicology has four subbranches:

Physical geography of Great Britain

27 Ноября 2011, контрольная работа

The full name of the country the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Lies between 50 and 60 parallels.
The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and great number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,100 sq. km.

Pierre Bourdieu

02 Февраля 2013, реферат

Habitus: Cultural habitat which becomes internalised in the form of dispositions to act, think, and feel in certain ways. A set of culturally determined bodily dispositions which have no representative content and at no stage pass through consciousness. E.g., the disposition to stand different distances from people in different circumstances; the disposition to behave or think in a racist was (e.g., someone who simply sees people from another race as ‘shifty’ or ‘arrogant’).

Places To Go in London

14 Марта 2012, творческая работа

The statue of Eros, set in the middle of Piccadilly Circus, is one of the most recognisable symbols of London. Originally known as the Shaftebury Monument, it was unveiled in 1893 as a memorial to the Victorian philanthropist, Lord Shaftesbury.

Plastic Cards: peculiarity of using in Kazakhstani and foreign practice

18 Апреля 2012, реферат

Economic development of any country today is impossible without a highly efficient system of money and the use of modern payment mechanisms. Billing mechanism - the structure of the economy, which mediates the "metabolism" in the economic system. Payment methods can be divided into cash and noncash. Cashless payments are gradually replacing the cash payments in the monetary systems of different countries.

Pneumonia lobular

15 Марта 2012, реферат

Lobular pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, occur as a complication of acute or chronic inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and bronchi in patients with congestive light, heavy, debilitating disease in the postoperative period. The body temperature rises to 38-39 ° C, rarely higher. Appears or increasing cough, dry or with mucopurulent sputum. Can chest pain when coughing and inhaling

Political System of Great Britain

10 Февраля 2012, реферат

The United Kingdom is governed within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is the head of state and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majesty's Government, on behalf of and by the consent of the Monarch, as well as by the devolved governments of Scotland and Wales, and the Executive of Northern Ireland. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the House of Commons and the House of Lords, as well as in the Scottish parliamen

Political system of great britain

18 Марта 2012, диссертация

Britain is administered from the Palace of Westminister in London (also known as the Houses of Parliament)
The head of the state is the queen (she opens and closes Parliament.

Political system of Russia

30 Января 2013, доклад

The Russian Federation is a Presidential (or a constitutional) republic. The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the people. In fact he has much power, he controls all the three branches of power. The President can even dissolve the Duma if he doesn't agree with his suggestions three times running. The President has his administration, but it's not part of the Federal Government. The President is involved in the work of the legislative and executive branches.


12 Марта 2012, реферат

Polypropylene is a plastic polymer, of the chemical designation C3H6. It is used in many different settings, both in industry and in consumer goods. It can be used both as a structural plastic and as a fiber.

Polysemy and homonymy in German and Ukrainian compared

05 Марта 2014, курсовая работа

Language is defined as a human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. But frankly speaking, language is far too complicated, intriguing, and mysterious to be adequately explained by a brief definition. The organic function of the language is to carry meaning. Most of the problems in linguistic science are intimately bound to question of semasiology and call for scientific analysis of communication in words. The study of words is not exclusively a study of roots and stems, of prefixes or suffixes. The mysterious world of words is an object of scientific investigation [ 7, p. 29 ].

Population of Kazakhstan

08 Декабря 2011, реферат

The total population of Kazakhstan is slightly over fifteen million inhabitants. Various periods in the country's history have affected the existing demographic situation: the ethnic composition consists of Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians, Germans, Koreans, Poles, Greeks, Tatars, Turks and many other nationalities.

Practical usage of punctuation marks

14 Апреля 2013, курсовая работа

Though punctuation is not in itself part of the grammatical structure of a language, it cannot be passed over in silence in a treatise on grammar, as it may, and often does, acquire grammatical significance. The other layer of language with which punctuation is connected is of course its phonetic layer, namely intonation.
In different languages the relations between punctuation, intonation, and grammar (syntax) may be different, that is, punctuation may tend to indicate intonation to a greater or to a smaller extent. It certainly always has something to do with grammar. Now from this viewpoint it may be said that in English punctuation is connected with intonation to a greater extent than in Russian.

Pride and Prejudice

11 Декабря 2011, творческая работа

Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen. First published in 1813, as her second novel, she started it in 1796 as her first persevering effort for publication. She finished the original manuscript by 1797[1] in Steventon, Hampshire, where she lived with her parents and siblings in the town rectory.

Prince William of Wales

19 Января 2012, биография

Prince Henry of Wales, the second son of Charles Prince of Wales and The popular and much loved Princess Diana Spencer, the daughter of John, Earl Spencer, was born on 15 September, 1984, at St. Mary's Hospital, Paddington, West London. He was baptized with the names Henry Charles Albert David at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, though is always known as simply Harry.

Principiile politice în relaţiile internaţionale

26 Февраля 2013, реферат

Caracterul politic al relaţiilor internaţionale, în pofida preeminenţei
factorului economic, nu poate fi trecut cu vederea. Cu toată
discontinuitatea politicii internaţionale, a empirismului şi
circumstanţialităţii ei şi, uneori, a intervenţiei hazardului, aceasta
trebuie să ţină cont de anumite principii proclamate şi statuate în timp,
în mai multe reprize.

Principles Old English phonetic changes

08 Ноября 2011, реферат

The development of vowels in Early OE consisted of the modification of separate vowels, and also of the modification of entire sets of vowels. The change begins with growing variation in pronunciation, which manifests itself in the appearance of numerous allophones: after the stage of increased variation, some allophones prevail over the others and a replacement takes place. It may result in the splitting of phonemes and their numerical growth, which fills in the “empty boxes” of the system or introduces new distinctive features. It may also lead to the merging of old phonemes, as their new prevailing allophones can fall together.

Problems and Prospects of Investment

11 Февраля 2013, реферат

Russia presents many promising investment opportunities with the potential for dynamic growth in sales and profits. However, investors face several significant challenges, including a complex regulatory and legal system that requires professional help to navigate, widespread corruption, a lack of respect for the rule of law, and immature banking and financial markets. In addition, state-owned entities have a major presence in many economic sectors, and may be potential competitors of new investors.

Procurement process

22 Декабря 2011, реферат

Procurement is a logistics function and it also plays a very important role supply chain management. With the increase in outsourcing of goods and services, the procurement function is very significant in the organization. Procurement today is a highly technical, scientific field. “Most industries spend from 40 to 60 percent of their revenues on materials and services from sources outside of the organization”1.

Production and Costs

29 Ноября 2011, реферат

Producing an economic good or service requires a combination of land, labour, capital, and entrepreneurs. The theory of production deals with the relationship between the factors of production and the output of goods and services. The theory of production is generally based on the short run, a period of production that allows producers to change only the amount of the variable input called labour. This contrasts with the long run, a period of production long enough for producers to adjust the quantities of all their resources, including capital. The Law of Variable Proportions state that, in the short run, output will change as one input is varied while the others are held constant. The Law of Variable Proportions deals with the relationship between the input of productive resources and the output of productive resources and the output of final products. The law helps answer the question: How is the output of the final product affected as more units of one variable input or resource are added to fixed amount of other resources?

Productive models of new words in English

10 Марта 2011, реферат

Scientific and technical revolution, progress of means of a mass communication, prompt progress of a public life lead to birth of huge quantity of new words and values, called «neologism explosion». There are new openings, concepts about earlier known facts and the phenomena of the validity, as well as about essence and functioning of these phenomena go deep. Occurrence in language of new designations - words – is the mandatory satellite of a new society in the field of culture, whether it be production of goods, a spiritual life, a fashion or relationships of people, social groups or the states.

Programming algorithms of the linear structure

12 Февраля 2013, лабораторная работа

The aim of the work: Drafting of the simplest of programs, realizing the conduct of the computing operations by the formulas that define the algorithm of linear structures.
Linear algorithms is a sequence of blocks, each of which has one input and one output and is performed in the program only once.

Promotional Tools

20 Декабря 2011, доклад

Promotional tools are just one of the four basic marketing tactics that should be included in every marketing strategy. Promotional tools are just one of the four basic marketing tactics that should be included in every marketing strategy. Promotions consist of all marketing communications used to distribute information about the product to consumers.

Punctuation in english language

21 Мая 2011, курсовая работа

Theme of the course work has been chosen with the aim to show how important punctuation in the language. I was interested to learn more about the rules of punctuation in English, since I knew little about it, and just to compare them with the punctuation of the Russian language.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: Past

17 Мая 2012, контрольная работа

Ellen Peel is 90 years old. She lives in the village with her five cats. She is not married, but she loves children. She often thinks about her past. Her father died in the war in 1915.
Ellen was 12 years old. She started work as a housemaid in London. She worked from 5.00 a.m. until 9.00 p.m. She cleaned all the rooms before breakfast. She earned 25 pounds a year. She went to Manchester in 1925 and became a teacher of French in 1930. In the 30s she taught French. Now she is a very famous teacher, she writes textbooks and very often goes to France. She has a lot of French friends there.

Question in the Narrative

06 Февраля 2013, доклад

Questions, being both structurally and semantically one of the types of sentences, are asked by one person and e'xpected to be answered by another. This is the main, and the most characteristic property of the question, i. e. it exists as a syntactical unit of language to bear this particular function in communication. Essentially, questions belong to the spoken language and presuppose the presence of an interlocutor, that is, they are commonly encountered in dialogue. The questioner is presumed not to know the answer.

Read the text about ethics in customs matters

04 Ноября 2011, реферат

Corruption can destroy the efficient functioning of any society and diminish the ability of the Customs Service to accomplish its mission. A corrupt Customs Service will not deliver the revenue that is properly due to the state; it will not be efficient in the fight against illicit trafficking and will obstruct the growth of legitimate international trade and hinder economic development.

Realization of implicit lexical-grammatical categories of noun in the songs of English speaking group “Evanescence”

18 Апреля 2012, курсовая работа

The theme of my course paper is: «Realization of Grammatical Categories of noun in the songs of English speaking groups». To begin with some words should be said about the things, described in my work.
Grammatical category is the unity of two or more grammatical meanings. [Levickiy 10]. Each grammatical category is based on opposition.

Reform in the financial system: Indonesia

05 Марта 2013, творческая работа

Central State Bank is "Bank Indonesia is", which has the exclusive right to issue bank notes, is the official holder of state currency reserves, as well as controls and regulates all financial institutions in Indonesia, except for the insurance companies.
Bank Indonesia is" is also responsible for the development and implementation of monetary policy under the authority of economic stabilization, which is headed by the president. On behalf of the government, "Bank Indonesia is" regulate the credit system and the level of bank interest rates. This bank also regulates liquidity, other banks, setting minimum levels of liquidity, as well as minimum requirements for reserve funds, which are deposit banks are required to maintain.