Architectural conservation

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Architectural conservation
Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of mankind's built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator. Ultimately, the decision is value based: a combination of artistic, contextual, and informational values is normally considered. In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate choice.

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Part 1. Translation

Architectural conservation 

Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of mankind's built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator. Ultimately, the decision is value based: a combination of artistic, contextual, and informational values is normally considered. In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate choice.

History of the architectural conservation movement

As a movement, architectural conservation in general, and the preservation of ancient structures specifically, gained momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was a response to Modernism and its corresponding architectural perspective, which eschewed sentimental attachment to old buildings and structures in favor of technological and architectural progress and change. Prior to this time most of the ancient buildings that were still standing had only survived because they either had significant cultural or religious import, or they had yet to be discovered.

The growth of the architectural conservation movement took place at a time of significant archaeological discovery and scientific advancement. Those educated in the field began to see various examples of architecture as either being "correct" or "incorrect". Because of this, two schools of thought began to emerge within the field of building conservation.

Preservation/Conservation were used interchangeably to refer to the architectural school of thought that either encouraged measures that would protect and maintain buildings in their current state, or would prevent further damage and deterioration to them. This school of thought saw the original design of old buildings as correct in and of themselves. Two of the main proponents of preservation and conservation in the 19th century were art critic John Ruskin and artist William Morris.

Restoration was the conservationist school of thought that believed historic buildings could be improved, and sometimes even completed, using current day materials, design, and techniques. In this way it's very similar to the Modernist architectural theory, except it does not advocate the destruction of ancient structures. One of the most ardent supporters of this school of thought in the 19th century was French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.

Current treatments

  • Preservation, "places a high premium on the retention of all historic fabric through conservation, maintenance and repair. It reflects a building's continuum over time, through successive occupancies, and the respectful changes and alterations that are made."
  • Rehabilitation "emphasizes the retention and repair of historic materials, but more latitude is provided for replacement. Both Preservation and Rehabilitation standards focus attention on the preservation of those materials, features, finishes and spatial relationships that, together, give a property its historic character."
  • Restoration "focuses on the retention of materials from the most significant time in a property's history, while permitting the removal of materials from other periods."
  • Reconstruction, "establishes limited opportunities to re-create a non-surviving site, landscape, building, structure, or object in all new materials."

Common architectural conservation/preservation problems

The earliest building materials used by ancient peoples, such as wood and mud, were organic. Organic materials were used because they were plentiful and renewable. Unfortunately, the organic materials used were also very susceptible to the two most significant impediments to preservation and conservation. Over time inorganic materials like brick, stone, metal, concrete, and terra cotta began to be used by ancient people instead of organic ones, due to their durability. In fact, we know that these materials are durable because many ancient structures that are composed of them, even some built as far back as the Bronze Age, like Egypt's Great Pyramids, still stand today.

Ancient buildings such as the Egyptian pyramids, the Roman Colosseum, and the Parthenon face common preservation issues.

As the Earth's climate patterns change, so too do the environmental conditions governing these buildings. For example, the Colosseum has already faced lightning, fire, and earthquakes. The changing climate increases the accumulation of salt crystals on the outside of monuments like the Colosseum and the Parthenon.This phenomenon increases the deterioration of these buildings.

1. What kind of materials were used in Bronze Age?

2. Why does the deterioration of Colosseum and the Parthenon are increases?

3. What are the reasons of using organic materials by ancient people?

4. Who were the main proponents of preservation and conservation in the 19th century?

5. Did the archaeological discovery take part in growth of the architectural conservation?

6. Which ancient buildings are face common preservation issues?

7. Are organic materials durable?

8. What kind of inorganic materials began to be used by ancient people instead of organic ones?

9. What's the name of individual engaged in restoration?

10. Was Restoration the conservationist school, or not?


Архітектурна реставрація описує процес, за допомогою якого матеріали, історична і дизайнерська цілістність архітектурної спадщини продовжується за допомогою ретельно спланованих заходів. Людина, що бере участь в цьому процесі - архітектурний реставратор. Рішення приймається на основі вартості робіт: поєднання художньої частини, контекстного та інформаційного значення. У деяких випадках рішення не втручатися може бути найкращим вибором.

Історія розвитку архітектурної реставрації 
Розвиток архітектурної реставрації в цілому, а також у збереженні стародавніх споруд зокрема, отримали поштовх у розвитку в 18 і 19 століттях. Це була реакція на модернізм і відповідність новій архітектурній точці зору, яка уникала сентиментальної прихильності до старих будівель і споруд на користьтехнологічного прогресу і змін. До цього часу більшість старовинних будівель простоювали, тому що вони або мали характерні культурні та релігійні особливості,або вони просто не були відкриті. 
Розвиток архітектурної реставрації відбулася під час значних археологічних відкриттів і наукових досягнень. Освіта в цій області почало розглядати різні приклади старовинної архітектури і відносити її до "правильного" ​​або"неправильного". У зв'язку з цим, в області архітектурної реставрації з'явилося дві школи.

Школа Збереження: 
Ця школа заохочувала заходи, спрямовані на захист і підтримку будинків в нинішньому стані, або ж на запобігання пошкодження і погіршення, консервування їх. Ця школа бачила оригінальний дизайн старих будівель. Головні прихильники збереження і консервації в 19 столітті були мистецтвознавець Джон Рескін і Вільям Морріс.


Школа Відновлення: 
Ця школа вважала, що історичні будівлі можуть бути поліпшені, вдосконалені за допомогою сучасних матеріалів, дизайну і нових технологій. Таким чином, ідея цієї школи дуже схожа з модерністською теорією архітектури, за винятком того, що не виступає за знищення стародавніх споруд. Один з найбільш відомий прихильників цієї школи в 19 столітті був французький архітектор Ежен Віолі-ле-Дюк.

Процес відновлення: 
§ Збереження: «велика увага приділяється збереженню всіх історичних елементів шляхом збереження, підтримки та ремонту. Будівля має відображати континуум перебігу часу, з збереженням змін і доповнень, які були зроблені за весь час ». 
§ Реабілітація «підкреслює збереження та відновлення історичних матеріалів.Обидва стандарти (збереження та відновлення) зосереджують свою увагу на збереженні цих матеріалів, можливості обробки і просторових взаємовідносин цих властивостей, які в сукупності дають його історичний характер ». 
§ Відновлення «орієнтується на збереження матеріалів з ​​найбільш значущого часу з історії спадщини, дозволяючи видалення матеріалів з ​​інших періодів». 
§ Реконструкція «встановлює обмежені можливості відтворити не збережений простір, пейзаж, будівлю, споруду або об'єкт за допомогою нових матеріалів».

Загальні проблеми архітектурної  реставрації / збереження  
Перші будівельні матеріали, які використовувалися стародавніми народами, були природного походження, вони були легко доступні і в надлишку, (дерево і глина, органічні матеріали). На жаль, матеріали, використовувані в той час дуже чутливі до двох найбільш значних перешкод на шляху збереження і консервації. Згодом стародавні люди почали використовувати неорганічні матеріали: цегла, камінь, метал, бетон, замість органічних, через їх міцность. Насправді, ми знаємо, що ці матеріали є міцним, тому що багато стародавних споруд які були побудовані ще в Бронзовому Віці, з цих матеріалів, стоять до цього часу.  Приміром Великі піраміди Єгипту.. 

Стародавні будівлі, такі як єгипетські піраміди, римський Колізей, і Парфенон зберегли своє обличчя. Оскільки клімат Землі змінюється, навколишнє середу впливає на стан будівель. Наприклад, Колізей вже зіткнувся з блискавками, пожежею і землетрусами. Зміна клімату підвищує накопичення кристалів солі на зовнішній поверхні пам'яток, таких як Колізей та Парфенон, що збільшує знос цих будинків.


Part 2. Annotations

Repairing the Nave Clerestory at Rochester Cathedral

Rochester Cathedral has its origins in the 7th century. In 604 Justus, the first bishop of Rochester, was consecrated by Augustine of Canterbury. However, it was not until 1083 that the present building was begun by the Norman bishop Gundulf, who founded the Benedictine monastic community which survived until the dissolution in 1541. What can be seen today, as so often in such ancient buildings, is an amalgam of different architectural styles surviving from different building and rebuilding programmes over the centuries. These are overlaid by the work of subsequent repairs and restoration. This is particularly true at Rochester, which is an architectural potpourri with examples of excellent work from every era. The overall effect is one of ramshackle charm rather than imposing grandeur. The nave is a typical example of this: the arcades and triforium are fine mid-12th century work, partly rebuilt in the 13th century, and the clerestories and roof were raised in the 15th century and extensively restored in the 19th.

The 2003 quinquennial survey of the condition of the cathedral’s fabric identified a number of defects in the nave clerestories that required urgent attention. The hood mouldings of the windows were failing, with many splitting through in the plane of the wall. This was probably exacerbated by the stones being wrongly bedded. Sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone and limestone, have a natural horizontal grain. Experience has shown that these stones are most durable when set in the building in the same orientation, with their beds horizontal. There are exceptions to this rule: in the construction of arches the bedding planes should be at right angles to the curve of the arch, and cornices or copings should be laid with the bedding planes oriented vertically, running back to front, so that they continue to shed water even when eroded.

The window mullions had been fixed in very long lengths with the bedding planes upright and this had resulted in splitting. Many mullions and jambs were also being spalled by the corrosion of the external iron window bars. The masonry and ironwork had all been renewed in the 1870s during Sir George Gilbert Scott’s extensive campaign of restoration.

Repair works were specified as one of three packages for a successful application to English Heritage for grant aid under their cathedrals scheme. The other two packages related to repair and improvement of access arrangements at high level and rainwater disposal. Competitive tenders were obtained and a contract was let for all three packages to Universal Stone of Great Dunmow in Essex. Work commenced in July 2006 and was completed by Christmas 2006.


Собор бере свій початок в 7 столітті. 

Що можна побачити і сьогодні, як це часто буває в таких старовинних  будівлях, він являє собою суміш  різних архітектурних стилів що збереглися від різних будівель і програм  відновлення протягом століть. 

Будівля добудовувалася до 15 століття, а в 19 була проведена реконструкція. 

У 2003 році був проведений детальний огляд, при якому було виявлено ряд недоліків, що вимагають ремонту. 

Фундаментні плити собору з піщанику й вапняку мають особливість, дощова вода розмиває їх, хоч вони і знаходяться досить глибоко. 

Кладки і залізо були відновлені в 1870-х років під час широкої кампанії сера Джорджа Гілберта Скотта по відновленню собору.  
Ремонтні роботи були визначені в якості одного з трьох пакетів по відновленню соборного спадщини Англії. 

 Два інших пакети, пов'язані з ремонтом і поліпшенням водостоку дощової води. 

Роботи були розпочаті в липні 2006 року і була завершена до Різдва 2006 року.  

Rebuilding a Church Spire 
St Luke's, West Holloway, London

 St Luke’s Church, situated in West Holloway, North London, is like many other ecclesiastical buildings constructed in the mid-19th century, built by pious, philanthropic and revivalist Victorians. Its style, which is by no means unique, seemingly dictated the choice of building materials, which clearly were in plentiful supply at the time. The juxtaposition of rough textured pale Kentish Ragstone panels and Bath stone dressings enhanced its smooth and correct Early English forms.

The historical use of Kentish Ragstone over many centuries, as seen in the Tower of London and more locally, the old Holloway Prison (1849-1852), as well as for innumerable Victorian churches, has left a legacy of problems, causing considerable anguish to modern stone conservators. There is no entirely satisfactory method of consolidation or suitable substitute stone for restoration purposes.

Although variations occur in spire construction techniques even where the same materials were used, the problems encountered when repairing this typical Victorian spire will be familiar to many over the next few decades, if they are not already.

Work began on building St Luke’s in 1859, with the land being donated by a Thomas Poynder who owned a lot of what is now Lower Holloway. Local dignitaries donated £1,500, and the church was consecrated in 1860. During the Second World War, St Luke’s suffered serious bomb damage when in 1941 the north Transept took a direct hit and was completely demolished.

A programme of repairs and rebuilding was undertaken during the 1950s. This included the complete rebuilding of the North Transept in reconstituted stone, rebuilding of the spire cap and upper courses in Portland stone dressed to emulate ragstone walling. Further repairs carried out at this time included re-pointing, stone consolidation and repair with a hard cement mortar.

Five years ago, during the quinquennial survey by the church architect, Robert George, it was noticed that large pieces of ragstone masonry were falling into the church yard below. Steeplejacks then carried out a further, more detailed survey of the spire and removed any loose and friable stone. Other churches in the area had had similar problems in the past, and there is much evidence locally of decapitated church spires. The decision was taken to try and save St Luke’s spire and not consign it to the local salvage yard.


Церква Святого Луки побудована в середині 19-го століття.

Його стиль, не унікальний, скоріше всього його диктував вибір будівельних матеріалів, які явно були в достатку в той час.

Почалися роботи з будівництва Санкт-Луки в 1859 році, на землі якої володівТомас Пойндер.

  Місцеві сановники пожертвували 1500 фунтів, і храм був освячений в 1860 році.

Під час Другої світової війни, церкві Святого Луки було завдано серйозної шкоди через бомбу, північна частина була повністю зруйнована в 1941 році. 
Програма ремонту і відновлення була зроблена в 1950-х, вона включала повне відновлення північної частини, каменю, відновлення шпиля даху.

П'ять років тому, під час дослідження, проведеного архітектором Робертом Джорджем, було відмічено, що великі шматки кладки обсипалися, що повело за собою видалення пухкого каменю з шпиля.

Було  прийняте рішення про відновлення  цих елементів церкви.

Таке рішення було прийнято, щоб спробувати врятувати шпиль Святого Луки.

Historic Methodist Architecture and its Protection

Methodism has long had an interest in buildings. Indeed, John Wesley’s preference for an octagonal shape is well known: the legacy can be seen at Yarm, Heptonstall (right) and St John’s, Arbroath. But buildings were then seen essentially as tools for preaching and mission, not as objects for veneration in their own right. Pure functionality was the original driving force for their design, and this is the main pattern that has continued. There is evidence that, as Methodism became more established, there was increasing awareness of architectural dignity and proportion. As a consequence, the simple vernacular forms gave way to buildings in the classical tradition, especially in urban areas. Such an example is Walcot, Bath designed by the Revd William Jenkins and which opened in 1815.

Towards the middle of the 19th century the issue of an appropriate style for Methodist architecture arose. In a series of papers advocating a preference for the Gothic style, the Revd Frederick Jobson (who trained as an architect) argued for beauty and perfection in design and execution without unnecessary adornment (see Recommended Reading below). His papers were presented to and adopted by the Methodist Conference, the governing body of Methodism. The influence of his writings was such that Gothic became the predominant style, particularly within Wesleyan Methodism. A typical building of this era is Altarnun, Cornwall, 1854.

The legacy of this development is a stock of about 700 chapels listed as being of architectural or historic interest. The concern over such buildings, however, stretches back well before the introduction of the current ecclesiastical legislation. In 1976 Listed Church Buildings was published by the then Methodist Division of Property (the department responsible for all building matters nationwide), primarily as a response to European Architectural Heritage Year, 1975. Written largely by the Revd George Dolbey, who was General Secretary of the Division and an architect and planner, the report reminded everyone that 'the careful preservation of such listed buildings as the Church possesses is part of the Church’s contribution to the culture of our generation and should be encouraged, providing the buildings subserve the work'.

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