Англійські пасивні конструкції та їх відтворення в українських перекладах
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Англійські пасивні конструкції та їх відтворення в українських перекладах.rtf— 1.67 Мб
Language belongs to each of us. Everyone uses words. What is it about language that makes people so cerious? The answer is that ther is almost nothing ib our lives that is not touched by language. We live in and by language. We all speak
and we all listen: so we are all interested in the origin of words, in how they appear and die.
The rise of English is a story of wonderful success. When Julius Caesar landed in Britain nearly two thousand years ago, English did not exist. Five hundred years later, in the 5th century, English was already spoken by the people who inhanited Great Britain but they were not many, and their English was not the language we know today. Nearly a thousand years later, at the end of the 16th century, when William Shakespeare created his works, English was the native language of about 6 million Englishmen. At that time English was not used anywhere else except Great Britain.
Nowadays, four hundred years later, 750 million people all over the world use English, and half of those speak it is a mother tongue. ' Of all the 2700 world languages English is one of the richest. Foor example, compare English, German and French: English has a vocabulary of about 500 000 words, German - 185 000, and French-fewer than 100 000. At the end of the 20th century English is more widely spoken and written, than any other language has ever been. It has become the language of the planet, the first truly global language. Three quarters of the world's mail and its telexes amd telegrams are in English. More than half of the world's scientific periodicals and eighty per cent of the information in the world's computers are also in English. English is the main language of business. It is the language of sports: the official language of the Olympics.
The English language surrounds us like a sea, and like the waters of a deep sea it is full of mysteiies. English is and has always been constantly changing. Some words die, some change their meanings and all the time new words appear in the language.
There are several ways to add new words to the language. One of them is by borrowing words from other languages. At the end of te 20th century in English there are many words that were borrowed from Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch and other languages. When Columbus came back from South America he brought home to Spain new plants - potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco. With the plants he brought their names. This is how words appeared in Spanish and later were borrowed from it by the English language.
Voice is the form of the verb which shows the relation between the action and its subject, indicating whether the action is performed by the subject or passes on to it. Accordingly there are 2 voices in English: the active and passive. The active voice shows that the action is performed by its subject, that the subject is doer of the action. The passive voice shows that the subject is acted upon, that it is the recipient of the action.
So, in the sentences with passive voice the object of the active voice because the subject of the passive voice.
The Passive Voice is formed by means of the auxiliary verb “to be” in the required form and Participle II of the notional verb.
a). The Present Past, Future Indefinite are formed by means of the auxiliary verb “to be” and Prticiple II of the notional verb.
b). The Present. Past, Future, Perfect Passive are formed by means of the Present, Past, Future Perfect of the oxilart verb “to be” and Participle II of the notional.
c). The Present Continuous and the Past Continuous Passive are formed by means of the Present Continuous and the Past Continuous of the oxiliary verb “to be” and Participle II of the notional verb.
The Future Cont., the Past Perfect Cont., Future Perf., Continuous are not found in the Passive Voice forms.
It is very important to remember, that only transitive verbs can be used in the Passive Voice.
Verbs are also to be either active (The executive committee approved the new policy) or passive (The new policy was approved by the executive committee) in voice. In the active voice, subject and verb relationship is straightforward: the subject is a be-er or a do-er and the verb moves the sentence along. In the passive voice. The subject of the sentence is neither a do-er or a be-er, but it acted upon by some pther agent or by something unnamed (The new policy was approved).
Computerized grammar checkers can pick out a passive voice construction from miles away and ask you to revise it to a more active construction. There is nothing inherently wrong with the passive voice, but if you can say the same thing in the active mode, do so (see exceptions below). Your text will have more pizzazz as the result, since passive verb constructions teld to lie about in their pajamas and avoid actual work.
We find overabundance of the passive voice in sentence created by self-projective business interest, magniloquent educators,and bombastic military writers (who must get weary of this accusation), who use the passive voice to avoid responsibility for actions taken. Thus “ Cigarette ads were designed to appeal especially to chidren" places the burden on the ads - as opposed to “ We designed the cigarette ads to appeal especially to children, in which “we" accepts responsibility. At a White House press briefing we might hear that “ The President was advised that certain members of Congress were being audited “rather than” The Head of the Internal Revenue service advised the President that her agency was auditing certain members of Congress “because the passive construction avoids responsibility for advising and for auditing. One further caution about the passive voice: we should not mix active and passive constructions in the same sentence: “ The executive commitee approved the new policy, and the calendar for next year's meetings was revised “ should be recast as “ The executive committee approved the new policy and revised the calendar for the next year'a meeting. ”
The passive voice exist for a reason, however, and its presence is not always to be despised. The passive is particularly useful (even recommended) in two situations:
- When it is more important to draw our attention to the person or thing acted upon:
- When the actor in the situation is not important: The aurora borealis can be observed in the early morning hours.
The passive voice is especially helpful (and even regarded as mandotory) in scientific or technical writing or lag reports, where the actor is not really important but the process or principle being described is of ultimate importance. Instead of writing “I poured 20 cc of acid into the beaker," we would write “ Twenty cc of acid is/was poured into the beaker." The passive voice is also useful when describing, say,a mechanical process in which the details of process are much more important than anyone's taking responsibility for the action: “ The first coat of primer paint is applied immediately after the acid rinse. ”
We use the passive voice to good effect in a paragraph in which we wish to shift emphasis from what was the object in a first sentences to what becomes the subject in subsequent sentences.
The executive committee approved an entirely new policy for dealing with academic suspension and withdrawal. The policy had been written by a subcommittee on student behavior. If students withdraw from course work before suspension can take effect, the policy ststes, a mark of “ IW”..
The paragraph is clearly about this new policy so it is appropriate that policy move from being the object in the first sentence to being the subject of the second sentence. The passive voice allows for this transition.
The use of the Passive voice pequliar to the English language. There are cases when the use of the Passive voice in English langusge seems to Ukrainian stidents very pequliar because we couldn't find the analogue construction in Ukrainian language. These cases as follows:
1). The verbs to accord, to advise, to allow, to avoid, to forgive, to give, to grant, to offer, to order, to pay, to tell, to teach are used in the Passive voice.
These verbs always take object, expressed by a Noun or an Indefinite. Thre action expressed by the Passive passes on the subject corresponds to the Ukrainian indirect object.
2). The Passive voice can be ised with intransive verbs used with the preposition, but in Ukrainian language we can't find passive construction with intransive verbs.
To express the action going on at a definite moment in the future, only future cont., active is possible. Thus the fussion sentence. Коли ви прийдете до лабораторії, дослід вже буде проводитися. Must be translated in the following way: When you come to the laboratory we shall already be making the experiment.
To denote an action, which began before a definite moment at a present, past, future and continued up to the moment the present, past and future, perfect cont.,are generally used.
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I. АНГЛІЙСЬКІ ПАСИВНІ КОНСТРУКЦІЇ ТА ЇХ ВІДТВОРЕННЯ В УКРАЇНСЬКИХ ПЕРЕКЛАДАХ
1.1 ПОНЯТТЯ ПРО ПАСИВНИЙ СТАН ДІЄСЛОВА В АНГЛІЙСЬКІЙ МОВІ
1.1.1 ВАЖЛИВІСТЬ ПАСИВНОГО СТАНУ ПРИ ПЕРЕКЛАДІ НА УКРАЇНСЬКУ
1.1.2 УТВОРЕННЯ ЧАСУ ПАСИВНОГО СТАНУ (THE PASSIVE VOICE)
1.1.3 ВЖИВАННЯ ЧАСУ ПАСИВНОГО СТАНУ ДІЄСЛОВА (В АНГЛІЙСЬКІЙ ТА УКРАЇНСЬКІЙ МОВАХ)
1.2 ОСОБЛИВОСТІ ВЖИВАННЯ РЕЧЕНЬ У ПАСИВНОМУ СТАНІ В АНГЛІЙСЬКІЙ МОВІ
1.3 ПЕРЕКЛАД РЕЧЕНЬ НА УКРАЇНСЬКУ З ДІЄСЛОВОМ У ПАСИВНОМУ СТАНІ
1.4 ПОРІВНЯННЯ ПАСИВНИХ КОНСТРУКЦІЙ В АНГЛІЙСЬКІЙ ТА УКРАЇНСЬКІЙ МОВАХ
1.5 ПРАКТИЧНЕ ОПРАЦЮВАННЯ ТА АНАЛІЗ ТЕКСТУ