General control problems in organizations

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Innovative educational projects designed to implement modern educational paradigm, the main content is the individualization and personality-oriented education, increasing the possibility of creative self in the educational process, synergy in collaboration with staff and students.

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General control problems in organizations

Organizational effectiveness is maintained constant control, adaptation of its configuration and proportions to many changes in the external and internal (structure-forming) factors, which include:

  • Prices and demand for goods and services, raw materials, labor costs and taxes;
  • Bank interest rates;
  • Administrative law;
  • Production technology, including equipment;
  • Number, qualifications, education, the ability of workers;
  • Performance of personnel and equipment;
  • Production areas, different standards and much, much more.

French engineer and researcher, the ideologue of the classical (administrative) school of Management, Henri Fayol proposed a system of 9 basic management principles that govern the regulatory and behavioral basis of the control system.


  1. division of labor - each member of the organization performs only part of the work according to their specialization and role requirements;
  2. power and responsibility - every manager in the organization must have a well-defined prerogatives of power and according to this well-defined part of the responsibility for organizational performance, achievement of organizational goals and the state of structural units;
  3. discipline - all members must conduct themselves in accordance with the group and institutional roles, to support and meet regulatory requirements;
  4. undivided authority - every member of the organization must comply with the same supervisor. Otherwise, you can clear fulfillment of role requirements and the requirements of discipline;
  5. unidirectionality of force (action) - an obligatory condition for the implementation of the synergies, failing which the organization can not function effectively;
  6. combination of individual and common interests - members of an organization should strive to achieve the organization's goals, otherwise the organization would not exist as a unit;
  7. remuneration staff of the Organization - managers organizations motivated members of organizations to work through the remuneration;
  8. availability of initiative - managers must constantly encourage independent and imaginative actions of employees within the limits of execution of their  roles and functions;
  9. harmony among the members of the organization - managers must create situations that prevent conflicts and social and psychological states tension between the members of the organization.






Technology and cost trends

TREND (from Lat. tendentia - direction)  identified by the economic analysis, observed stability relationship, properties, some characteristics of the economic system, economy, business, company, income, expenses, household consumption, demand and supply in the market of goods and services, established direction of economic processes. Based on trends to draw conclusions about the economic processes in the future, to predict economic performance.

Trends in the development of modern society dictate the need to build an innovation-education system. This is defined as the deficiencies of the current system of education, in particular, its isolation from the broader socio-economic context, as well as addressing the issue of training of competent and creative professionals to implement the strategy of innovative breakthrough to world markets.

Innovative educational projects designed to implement modern educational paradigm, the main content is the individualization and personality-oriented education, increasing the possibility of creative self in the educational process, synergy in collaboration with staff and students.

From what depends the PRICE for living space?

Cost per square meter of real estate consists of many factors. As you know, everything costs money. They’re:

  • construction materials;
  • The registration the land for construction;
  • project engineering work;
  • construction machinery;
  • wage workers;
  • electricity, heating, water, sewerage, telephone, etc.;
  • protection of the facility.




Performance evaluation of data processing managers

Systems assess success of marketing activities designed to ensure that the company has reached a given level of sales, profits and other goals set out in its marketing and strategic plans. Together these plans reflect the results of operations the planning, which indicate how the resources should be distributed across markets, products and activities of the complex marketing mix . The first and most important goal of marketing - is the level of sales, which the company reaches or separate position "product / market."

Timeliness is a key criterion in the development of the evaluation system of marketing activities. Managers often track performance information - no matter whether it concerns sales, profits or losses - at regular intervals, because they have no time or need to evaluate the effectiveness of each item every minute. Procurement managers and merchandisers in retail companies usually assess implementation performance of heading or category each week. In respect of certain categories of fashion goods, such as women's clothing, where the timing is particularly important, the possession of information on demand is very important because of the competition. Expenses of stores/shops on staff salaries –is another key indicator of the effectiveness of retail firms, which affects both customer service and profitability.



Software cost estimation

Industry has a need for accurate estimates of effort and size at a very early stage in a project. However, when software cost estimates are done early in the software development process the estimate can be based on wrong or incomplete requirements. A software cost estimate process is the set of techniques and procedures that an organisation use to arrive at an estimate. An important aspect of software projects is to know the cost, The major contributing factor is effort.

Software cost estimation is the process of predicting the effort required to develop a software system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last 30 years. As a number of these models rely on a software size estimate as input, we first provide an overview of common size metrics. Models may be classified into 2 major categories: algorithmic and non-algorithmic. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. A key factor in selecting a cost estimation model is the accuracy of its estimates. Unfortunately, despite the large body of experience with estimation models, the accuracy of these models is not satisfactory.


Capacity planning

Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by an organization to meet changing demands for its products. In the context of capacity planning, "design capacity" is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period, "effective capacity" is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a given period due to constraints such as quality problems, delays, material handling, etc. The phrase is also used in business computing as a synonym for Capacity Management.


Short term utilization

In equipment and tool rental companies, utilization is the primary method by which asset performance is measured and business success determined. In basic terms it is a measure of the actual revenue earned by assets against the potential revenue they could have earned. Rental utilization is divided into a number of different calculations, and not all companies work precisely the same way. In general terms however there are 2 key calculations: the physical utilization on the asset, which is measured based on the number of available days for rental against the number of days actually rented. (This may also be measured in hours for certain types of equipment), and the financial utilization on the asset (referred to in North America as $ Utilization) which is measured as the rental revenue achieved over a period of time against the potential revenue that could have been achieved based on a target or standard, non-discounted rate.

Physical utilization is also sometimes referred to as spot utilization, where a rental company looks at its current utilization of assets based on a single moment in time (e.g. now, 9 am today, etc.).





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