International Relations in the 21th century

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The aim of my topic is to speak about International Relations in the 21th century. I divided my presentation into three parts. In the first part I would like to consider IR like a science. In the second part I’m going to highlight main concepts and to name the tools of International relations . In the 3 part I would like to give general view of modern tendencies in international relations.

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The aim of my topic is to speak about International Relations in the 21th century. I divided my presentation into three parts. In the first part I would like to consider IR like a science. In the second part I’m going to highlight main concepts and to name the tools of International relations .  In the 3 part I would like to give general view of modern tendencies in international relations.

So, let me start with the first part. International relations (IR) is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science, but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study. It involves a diverse range of issues including but not limited to: globalization, state sovereignty, ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, global finance, terrorism, organized crime, human security, foreign interventionism and human rights.

This covers the first part of my topic and I move to the second one.

The concept of power in international relations can be described as the degree of resources, capabilities, and influence in international affairs. It is often divided up into the concepts of hard power and soft power, hard power relating primarily to coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence.

Polarity in International Relations refers to the arrangement of power within the international system.

The balance of power was a concept prevalent in Europe prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing power blocs it would create stability and prevent war.

Many advocate that the current international system is characterized by growing interdependence; the mutual responsibility and dependency on others. The role of international institutions, and widespread acceptance of a number of operating principles in the international system, reinforces ideas that relations are characterized by interdependence.

Humanitarian intervention "refers to a state using military force against another state when the chief publicly declared aim of that military action is ending human-rights violations being perpetrated by the state against which it is directed."[

Systemic tools of international relations are: Diplomacy as the practice of communication and negotiation between representatives of states. Sanctions are usually a first resort after the failure of diplomacy, and are one of the main tools used to enforce treaties. They can take the form of diplomatic or economic sanctions and involve the cutting of ties and imposition of barriers to communication or trade. War, the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate tool of international relations. The mobilization of international shame can also be thought of as a tool of International Relations. The allotment of economic and/or diplomatic benefits. An example of this is the European Union's enlargement policy.

This covers the 2nd part of my topic and I move to the 3rd one. Here I would like to tell about main actors of international relations and about the last changes and tendencies. They are not only states, but also IGOs (inter-governmental organizations), NGOs (international nongovernmental organizations), multinational corporations (MNCs). International institutions form a vital part of contemporary International Relations. If in the beginning of the 20th century scientists saw IR like relations between states, nowadays everyone understand that close interaction of communities from different countries play the great role on the world scene. The World Bank defines a non-governmental organization (NGO) as "private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development".

Non-governmental organizations have played a major role in pushing for sustainable development at the international level. Campaigning groups have been key drivers of inter-governmental negotiations, ranging from the regulation of hazardous wastes to a global ban on land mines and the elimination of slavery. The most influences nongovernmental organizations are International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Greenpeace, Doctors without Borders,

Intergovernmental governmental organizations are constructed by states to facilitate cooperation. The primary utility of IGOs lies in providing states with a forum which they can use to negotiate conflicts. IGOs are also useful to states in a number of additional ways. First, by providing a forum for discussion, they make it less costly for states to discuss issues with one another. Second, IGOs often serve as information providers. The enhanced transparency helps to minimize misperceptions. Third, IGOs help to facilitate issue linkages, which may facilitate cooperation. Fourth, IGOs help allow states to take a long-term perspective, which makes them less concerned about immediate payoffs. Fifth, the multilateral nature of IGOs lends an air of impartiality that enhances their effectiveness.

Notable examples include the United Nations (UN), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (CoE), European Union (EU), and World Trade Organization (WTO) and great number of regional organizations.

What about MNCs they have unprecedented economic power. Such influence has also been reflected in corporations' willingness and ability to exert leverage directly by employing government officials, participating on important national economic policy making committees, making financial contributions to political parties, and bribery.

So, you can see that such groups like IGOs, NGOs and MNCs like states have significant role in shaping IR.

To conclude, The world of the 21st century is a global community of nations, all of which coexist in some measure of political and economic interdependence. In this domain the need for an international body that is suitable to the contemporary and the developing world system which facilitates the international relations between world entities that represents the citizens' needs and preserve international law is a pressing need. Furthermore the world needs a well developed economic system where there is a place for all whether it is a strong or weak economy, to guarantee a world system capable to meet the requirements for implementing the peace and security that are for long desired. Prevention of conflicts and preventive diplomacy should become main instruments of removing tensions in international relations.

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